Lyme disease: ecological and epidemiological factors influencing increased global transmission

Document Type : Review


1 Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

2 Columbus State Community College, Columbus, Ohio, USA


Lyme disease (LD) has experienced a significant surge in prevalence over the last 20 years, spreading rapidly across the globe. This worrisome trend can be attributed to several factors, including the proximity of humans to LD carriers, heightened clinical awareness of the disease, and the expansion of tick habitats due to climate change. The encroachment of urban development has brought communities closer to ticks that carry LD, yet our understanding of LD lags behind, particularly in terms of the genetic makeup of various LD strains. Although attempts have been made to bridge this knowledge gap through citizen science initiatives and improved accessibility to testing, the scarcity of data in resource-poor regions remains a formidable obstacle to overcome. There is a significant gap in the identification and management of LD in regions where there is no clinical awareness of the disease and limited resources for research dissemination. It is essential to collect comprehensive data to identify LD effectively so that healthcare workers can promptly diagnose infected patients. Urgent action is necessary to prevent future health crises and reduce costs, as the spread of LD is increasing year after year. Climate change is partly responsible for this surge in cases, and researchers must adapt flexible data collection methods to control its spread. Improved community-level monitoring for LD, clinical recognition, and broader research dissemination can improve patient care, inform public health strategies, and secure funding for further research.


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