Document Type : Original Article
Basic Science Nursing Department, College of Nursing, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
Clinical Science Nursing Department, College of Nursing, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
Background: Freezing starchy food causes the starch structure to break down, resulting in resistant starch that behaves like fiber. This leads to a slower rise in blood sugar, which may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and weight gain.
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the impact of reheated white bread and frozen versions on the glycemic responses of healthy individuals.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 32 healthy participants (14 males and 18 females) aged 18–50 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-29 kg/m² and fasting blood sugar levels of 75–100 mg/dl. The participants were given 100 grams of fresh white bread made from Turkish flour (Al-Haramain type), and their blood sugar levels were measured at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. This process was repeated after feeding the participants with 100 grams of frozen bread for 3, 5, and 7 days to observe the effect of freezing and reheating white bread on blood sugar levels, as well as the impact of freezing duration.
Results: The glycemic response of the participants to frozen and reheated white bread was lower compared to fresh white bread at all time intervals. The maximum blood sugar level was reached after 30 minutes of consuming fresh bread, at 120 mg/dl. However, for reheated bread, it reached 132 mg/dl. The prolonged freezing time did not increase the amount of resistant starch, and similar results were observed for 3, 5, and 7 days of freezing in terms of decreasing blood sugar levels.
Conclusion: Frozen and reheated white bread leads to lower blood sugar levels compared to fresh white bread. This can be attributed to the formation of resistant starch during the freezing process.