Prevalence of sports injuries and related causes among male students aged 7–15 years in Yazd, Iran, 2022

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Sports Injury, Department of Sport Sciences, Velayat University, Iranshahr, Iran

2 Ph.D. in Sports Biomechanics, Farhangian University of Yazd, Yazd, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Athletic Training, Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran


Background: Understanding the reasons for injuries in athletes is crucial, and this is particularly important for adolescent athletes since they possess unique physical, motor, and psychological traits requiring special attention.
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of sports injuries and their related causes among male student-athletes participating in the 30th male-student sports festival held across the country.
Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 425 male student-athletes (mean age 12.1±7.82, range 7–15 years) with an athletic history of 3.3±0.18 years, randomly selected from 1927 male student-athletes competing in the four sporting areas. Rope skipping, athletics, swimming, and gymnastics competed at the 30th National Sports Festival for Male Students (Yazd, September 2022). Injury information was collected using the Fuller and colleagues (2006) injury report form.
Results: The results showed that 54% of athletes in track and field, 23.30% in skipping rope, 13.5% in gymnastics, and 9.2% in swimming had a history of sports injuries. The severity of injuries in different sports fields was 83.2% mild, 10.5% moderate, and 6.3% severe. The types of injuries were 54% muscular tendon, 3.32% bone joint, and 7.13% skin. The injured body parts were 44.5% lower limbs, 36.3% upper limbs, and 19.2% trunk and spine. 36% of injuries were due to incorrect exercise movements, 30% were due to inadequate warm-up, 20% were due to insufficient physical preparation, and 14% were due to inappropriate environmental conditions.
Conclusion: The study highlights that sports injuries in Iran occur more frequently due to incorrect exercise movements and inadequate warm-up. It is necessary to provide specialized practical training for teachers and coaches to prevent these incidents and promote safe athletic training practices for adolescent athletes.


Main Subjects

  1. Nejati V. Prevalence of sports injuries and related causes in female students. Harkat. 2008(35):117-28.
  2. Zakani A, Shoja Aldin S. The study of the relationship between prevalence of sport injuries and some injury causing factors among college student free-style top wrestlers of Iran. Res Sports Sci. 2006;3(9):87-104.
  3. Zolfaghari R. Prevalence and causes of freestyle wrestling injuries among elite high school athletes in Mashhad: University of Tehran; 1997.
  4. Gratz RR. School injuries: what we know, what we need. J Pediatr Health Care. 1992;6(5):256-62. doi:10.1016/0891-5245(92)90024-X PMid:1403570
  5. Gharakhanlou R, Daneshmandi H, Alizadeh MH. Prevention and Treatmentof Sports Injuries. Tehran: Sports Sciences Research Institute of Iran; 2021. 656 p.
  6. Taylor BL, Attia MW. Sports‐related injuries in children. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(12):1376-82. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2000.tb00495.x PMid:11099428
  7. Murphy D, Connolly D, Beynnon B. Risk factors for lower extremity injury: a review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2003; 37(1):13-29. doi:10.1136/bjsm.37.1.13 PMid:12547739 PMCid:PMC1724594
  8. Nielsen RO, Rønnow L, Rasmussen S, M Lind. A prospective study on time to recovery in 254 injured novice runners. PLoS one. 2014;9(6): e99877. doi:1371/journal.pone.0099877
  9. Jenkins WL, Raedeke SG. Lower-extremity overuse injury and use of foot orthotic devices in women's basketball. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2006;96(5):408-12. doi:10.7547/0960408 PMid:16988170
  10. Ebrahimi Atri A, Hashemi Javaheri SAA, Kushki H, Ahmadi M, Mahmudi A. Frequency of sports injuries and related factors in male students participating in the athletic sports olympiad 2010 of Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci. 2012;19 (2):198-205.
  11. Rechel JA, Yard EE, Comstock RD. An epidemiologic comparison of high school sports injuries sustained in practice and competition. J Athl Train. 2008;43(2):197-204. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-43.2.197 PMid:18345346 PMCid:PMC2267335         
  12. Seyedahmadi M, Samadi H. The prevalence of sports injuries and associated factors among male students. Int J Basic Sci Appl Res. 2014; 3(1):7-11.
  13. Schmidt K. Sport injuries in adolescents. J Med Sci. 1990;18:312-21.
  14. Rezvani MH. Investigating the prevalence and causes of various sports injuries in high schools in Shahroud Student: University of Tehran; 1996.
  15. Eliassy Q. Determining and describing sports injuries in football: University of Isfahan; 1998.
  16. Zakani A. Frequency of sports injuries among Iranian elite track and field wrestlers: Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch; 1996.
  17. Fuller CW, Ekstrand J, Junge A, Andersen TE, Bahr R, Dvorak J, et al. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures in studies of football (soccer) injuries. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006;16 (2): 83-92. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00528.x PMid:16533346
  18. Tyflidis A, Kipreos G, Tripolitsioti A, Stergioulas A. Epidemiology of track & field injuries: a one year experience in athletic schools. Biol Sport. 2012;29(4):291-5. doi:10.5604/20831862.1019885
  19. Campbell RA, Bradshaw EJ, Ball NB, Pease DL, Spratford W. Injury epidemiology and risk factors in competitive artistic gymnasts: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53(17): 1056-69. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2018-099547 PMid:30670379
  20. Mountjoy M, Junge A, Alonso JM, Engebretsen L, Dragan I, Gerrard D, et al. Sports injuries and illnesses in the 2009 FINA World Championships (Aquatics). Br J Sports Med. 2010; 44(7): 522-7. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.071720 PMid:20460256
  21. Gessel LM, Fields SK, Collins CL, Dick RW, Comstock RD. Concussions among United States high school and collegiate athletes. J Athl Train. 2007;42(4):495.
  22. Abernethy L, MacAuley D, McNally O, McCann S. Immediate care of school sport injury. Inj Prev. 2003;9(3):270-3. doi:10.1136/ip.9.3.270 PMid:12966020 PMCid:PMC1730995
  23. Pakravan M, Saheb Al-Zamani M, Ghahreman Tabrizi K. Investigating the prevalence and causes of sports injuries in physical education students. Stud Sports Med. 2009;3:81-94.
  24. ShojaAldin SSAD, Alizadeh Mohammad H, Moradi M. The investigation of relationship between prevalence of sport injuries and some injury causing among athlete male students in Payame Noor University. Res Sports Sci. 2008; 6(19):71-83.
  25. Deitch JR, Starkey C, Walters SL, Moseley JB. Injury risk in professional basketball players: a comparison of Women's National Basketball Association and National Basketball Association athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(7):1077-83. doi:10.1177/0363546505285383 PMid:16493173
  26. Junge A, Langevoort G, Pipe A, Peytavin A, Wong F, Mountjoy M, et al. Injuries in team sport tournaments during the 2004 Olympic Games. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(4):565-76. doi:10.1177/0363546505281807 PMid:16303876
  27. Knobloch K, Rossner D, Gössling T, Richter M, Krettek C. Volleyball sport school injuries. Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft fur Orthopadisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin. 2004;18(4):185-9. doi:10.1055/s-2004-813481 PMid:15592981
  28. Wong P, Hong Y. Soccer injury in the lower extremities. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(8):473-82. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.015511 PMid:16046325 PMCid:PMC1725275
  29. Bennett P, Fawcett L. Trauma injuries sustained by female footballers. Trauma. 2006;8(2):69-76. doi:10.1177/1460408606072682
  30. Junge A, Dvorak J. Injuries in female football players in top-level international tournaments. Br J Sports Med. 2007; 41 (suppl 1):i3-i7. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.036020 PMid:17646248 PMCid:PMC2465250