Investigation of Niosomes for use as brucellosis vaccine

Document Type : Original Article


1 Research Center for Life & Health Sciences & Biotechnology of the Police, Directorate of Health, Rescue & Treatment, Police Headquarter, Tehran, Iran

2 Molecular Biology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Research Center for Trauma in Police Operations, Directorate of Health, Rescue & Treatment, Police Headquarter, Tehran, Iran


Background: Niosomes are a promising new drug delivery system that utilizes vesicles to provide sustained, controlled, and targeted delivery of drugs. Not only are they effective for delivering drugs, but they also show potential as vaccine candidates. With their unique properties and capabilities, niosomes represent a valuable tool for advancing the field of drug delivery.
Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to analyze the host's immunogenic response to niosomes loaded with a chimeric protein as a potential brucellosis vaccine candidate.
Methods: In 2020, 50 BALB/c mice were used in this experimental investigation to assess the immunogenic response to niosomes containing a chimeric protein as a potential brucellosis vaccine candidate. The mice were randomly assigned to different groups for injection, oral, and inhalation administration of the vaccine. Brucella strains were obtained from the Razi Vaccine and Serum Institute, and microbiological studies were conducted using the microbial collection from the Pasteur Institute of Iran. Luria-Bertani liquid and solid culture medium from Merck, Germany; Brucella agar culture medium from Gibco, USA; and Kanamycin antibiotic from Roche, Germany, were used during the study.
Results: The study showed promising results, indicating that niosomes are an effective and safe approach in the design of a Brucella vaccine. The immunogenic response in the laboratory mice was found to be satisfactory, suggesting that this type of vaccine could be a suitable candidate for protection against brucellosis.
Conclusion: Niosomes have emerged as a promising drug delivery system for vaccines. They offer controlled, sustained, and targeted delivery of vaccines, which is essential for effective and safe immunization. Overall, these findings suggest that niosomes hold great potential in vaccine development and could play a crucial role in the fight against various diseases.


Main Subjects

  1. Singh TG, Sharma N. Nanobiomaterials in cosmetics: current status and future prospects. Nanobiomate Galenic Formulations 2016:149-74. doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-42868-2.00007-3
  2. Moghassemi S, Hadjizadeh A. Nano-niosomes as nanoscale drug delivery systems: an illustrated review. J Controll Release. 2014; 185: 22-36. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.04.015 PMid:24747765
  3. Kavussi HR, Miresmaeili SM, Lotfabadi NN. Niosomes from Preparation to Application in Drug Delivery. J Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci. 2020 doi: 18502/ssu.v28i2.3473
  4. Abdelkader H, Alani AW, Alany RG. Recent advances in non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes): self-assembly, fabrication, characterization, drug delivery applications and limitations. Drug Deliv. 2014;21(2):87-100. doi:10.3109/10717544.2013.838077 PMid:24156390
  5. Kaur D, Kumar S. Niosomes: present scenario and future aspects. J Drug Deliv Ther. 2018;8(5):35-43. doi:10.22270/jddt.v8i5.1886
  6. Sharma V, Anandhakumar S, Sasidharan M. Self-degrading niosomes for encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs: an efficient carrier for cancer multi-drug delivery. Mater Sci Eng: C. 2015;56:393-400. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2015.06.049 PMid:26249606
  7. De A, Venkatesh N, Senthil M, Sanapalli BKR, Shanmugham R, Karri V. Smart niosomes of temozolomide for enhancement of brain targeting. Nanobiomedicine. 2018;5:1849543518805355. doi:10.1177/1849543518805355 PMid:30344765 PMCid:PMC6187422
  8. Bhardwaj P, Tripathi P, Gupta R, Pandey S. Niosomes: A review on niosomal research in the last decade. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol. 2020;56:101581. doi:10.1016/j.jddst.2020.101581
  9. Abdul-Hassan LS, Hashem IA. Detection Malta Fever by Interferon-gamma and Steroid Hormone S Level. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol. 2020;14(2).
  10. Rozo Ortiz EJ, Barón Barón JO, Castillo López DR, Vargas Rodríguez LJ. Malta fever: Clinical case. Revista Médica de Risaralda. 2021;27(2):153-60.
  11. Buttigieg SC, Savic S, Cauchi D, Lautier E, Canali M, Aragrande M. Brucellosis control in Malta and Serbia: a One Health evaluation. Front Vet Sci. 2018;5:147. doi:10.3389/fvets.2018.00147 PMid:30018972 PMCid:PMC6037850
  12. Williams E. The Mediterranean Fever Commission: its origin and achievements. Brucellosis: clinical and laboratory aspects: CRC Press; 2020. p. 11-23. doi:10.1201/9781003068518-4
  13. Pal M, Gizaw F, Fekadu G, Alemayehu G, Kandi V. Public health and economic importance of bovine Brucellosis: an overview. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;5(2):27-34. doi:10.12691/ajeid-5-2-2
  14. Norouzinezhad F, Erfani H, Norouzinejad A, Kaveh F, Ghaffari F. Epidemiology of human brucellosis (Malta fever) in Lorestan province during 2009-2017. Q J Caspian Health Aging. 2020;5(2) :66-79.
  15. Maryam G, Saeid B. review of brucellosis in Iran: epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, control, and prevention. 2017.
  16. Norouzinezhad F, Erfani H, Norouzinejad A, Ghaffari F, Kaveh F. Epidemiological Characteristics and Trend in the Incidence of Human Brucellosis in Iran from 2009 to 2017. J Res Health Sci. 2021;21(4):e00535. doi:10.34172/jrhs.2021.70 PMid:36511231 PMCid:PMC8957668
  17. Rathee J, Kanwar R, Kaushik D, Salunke DB, Mehta SK. Niosomes as efficient drug delivery modules for encapsulation of Toll-like receptor 7 agonists and IDO-inhibitor. Appl Surf Sci. 2020; 505: 144078. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.144078
  18. Bugybayeva D, Kydyrbayev Z, Zinina N, Assanzhanova N, Yespembetov B, Kozhamkulov Y, et al. A new candidate vaccine for human brucellosis based on influenza viral vectors: a preliminary investigation for the development of an immunization schedule in a guinea pig model. Infect Dis Poverty. 2021;10(01):56-65. doi:10.1186/s40249-021-00801-y PMid:33593447 PMCid:PMC7886305
  19. Paolino D, Cosco D, Muzzalupo R, Trapasso E, Picci N, Fresta M. Innovative bola-surfactant niosomes as topical delivery systems of 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of skin cancer. Int J Pharm. 2008; 353(1-2):233-42 doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.11.037 PMid:18191509
  20. Barani M, Mirzaei M, Torkzadeh-Mahani M, Nematollahi MH. Lawsone-loaded Niosome and its antitumor activity in MCF-7 breast Cancer cell line: a Nano-herbal treatment for Cancer. DARU J Pharm Sci. 2018;26(1):11-7. doi:10.1007/s40199-018-0207-3 PMid:30159762 PMCid:PMC6154483