Prevalence of congenital heart disease and related factors among children admitted to the pediatric cardiac center in Rafsanjan, southeastern Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 M.D, Student Research Committee, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Nursing, Department of Pediatric Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran


Background: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most common congenital defects and the leading cause of birth defects-associated morbidity, mortality, and medical expenditures. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of congenital heart disease among children in Rafsanjan, southeastern Iran.
Objectives: The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) among emergency nurses.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the research population included all pediatric patients admitted to the Pediatric Cardiac Center in Rafsanjan, southeastern Iran, from September 2018 to March 2019. A researcher-made checklist was used to collect data, including disease and demographic information, about children and their parents through face-to-face interviews. Echocardiography was applied to diagnose CHD.
Results: Of the 50 children, 30 (60%) were girls and 20 (40%) were boys. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), which affects approximately 50% of children with CHD, and atrial septal defect (ASD), which affects approximately 20% of children with CHD, were the most common CHD anomalies. There was a significant difference between the frequency of PDA and ventricular septal defect (VSD) based on the delivery method and gestational age (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated a significant prevalence of PDA among children with CHD. Gestational age may serve as a contributing factor to CHD. These results can benefit specialists in preventing and treating these conditions


  1. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE): Authorship and artificial intelligence tools; February 13, 2023 Available from: (accessed August 8,2023)
  2. Tantchou Tchoumi JC, Butera G, Giamberti A, Ambassa JC, Sadeu JC. Occurrence and pattern of congenital heart diseases in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2011; 22 (2): 63-6. doi:10.5830/CVJA-2010-046
  3. Reller MD, Strickland MJ, Riehle-Colarusso T, Mahle WT, Correa A. Prevalence of congenital heart defects in metropolitan Atlanta, 1998-2005. J Pediatr. 2008;153(6):807-13. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.05.059
  4. Rosamond W, Flegal K, Friday G, Furie K, Go A, Greenlund K, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2007 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2007;115(5):e69-171. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.179918
  5. Naghavi-Behzad M, Alizadeh M, Azami S, Foroughifar S, Ghasempour-Dabbaghi K, Karzad N, et al. risk factors of congenital heart diseases: a case-control study in northwest Iran. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2013;5(1):5-9.
  6. Ou Y, Mai J, Zhuang J, Liu X, Wu Y, Gao X, et al. Risk factors of different congenital heart defects in Guangdong, China. Pediatr Res. 2016;79(4):549-58. doi:10.1038/pr.2015.264
  7. Andreassi MG. Radiation risk from pediatric cardiac catheterization: friendly fire on children with congenital heart disease. Am Heart Assoc. 2009. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.904458
  8. Control CfD, Prevention. Data and statistics on congenital heart defects. 2019.
  9. Van Der Linde D, Konings EE, Slager MA, Witsenburg M, Helbing WA, Takkenberg JJ, et al. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(21):2241-7. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.08.025
  10. Rahim F, Ebadi A, Saki G, Remazani A. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in iran: a clinical study. J Med Sci. 2008;8(6):547-52. doi:10.3923/jms.2008.547.552
  11. Brent RL. Environmental causes of human congenital malformations: the pediatrician's role in dealing with these complex clinical problems caused by a multiplicity of environmental and genetic factors. Pediatrics. 2004; 113 (Supplement 3):957-68. doi:10.1542/peds.113.S3.957
  12. Jenkins KJ, Correa A, Feinstein JA, Botto L, Britt AE, Daniels SR, et al. Noninherited risk factors and congenital cardiovascular defects: current knowledge: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation. 2007; 115 (23):2995-3014. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.183216
  13. Khasawneh W, Hakim F, Abu Ras O, Hejazi Y, Abu-Aqoulah A. Incidence and Patterns of Congenital Heart Disease Among Jordanian Infants, a Cohort Study From a University Tertiary Center. Front Pediatr. 2020;8:219. doi:10.3389/fped.2020.00219
  14. Dehghani R, Moosavi SG, Esalmi H, Mohammadi M, Jalali Z, Zamini N. Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets of Iran in 2009. J Environ Prot. 2011;2(8):1113. doi:10.4236/jep.2011.28129
  15. TavakolianFerdosieyeh V, Karimifared M, Esmaeili A, Hassanshahi G, Vazirinejad R. Pesticide induced complications among pistachio farmers: In the rural area of Rafsanjan, Iran (2010). J Occup Health Epidemiol. 2012;1(2):111-7. doi:10.18869/acadpub.johe.1.2.111
  16. Hakimi H, Ahmadi J, Vakilian A, Jamalizadeh A, Kamyab Z, Mehran M, et al. The profile of Rafsanjan cohort study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2021;36(2):243-52. doi:10.1007/s10654-020-00668-7
  17. Zahid SB, Jan AZ, Ahmed S, Achakzai H. Spectrum of congenital heart disease in children admitted for cardiac surgery at Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2013; 29 (1): 173. doi:10.12669/pjms.291.2910
  18. Wanni KA, Shahzad N, Ashraf M, Ahmed K, Jan M, Rasool S. Prevalence and spectrum of congenital heart diseases in children. Heart India. 2014;2(3):76.
  19. Majeed-Saidan MA, Atiyah M, Ammari AN, AlHashem AM, Rakaf MS, Shoukri MM, et al. Patterns, prevalence, risk factors, and survival of newborns with congenital heart defects in a Saudi population: a three-year, cohort case-control study. J Congenit Cardiol. 2019;3(1):1-10. doi:10.1186/s40949-019-0023-8
  20. Zaqout M, Aslem ES, Oweida FS, De Wolf D. Prevalence of congenital heart disease among Palestinian children born in the Gaza Strip. Cardiol Young. 2014;24(5):905-9. doi:10.1017/S1047951113001418
  21. Derakhshan R, Barfeii N, Sadeghi T. Frequency of Congenital Heart Disease in Neonates with Extra Cardiac Anomalies. Int J Pediatr-Mashhad. 2020;8(7):11597-602.
  22. Oster ME, Riehle‚ÄźColarusso T, Simeone RM, Gurvitz M, Kaltman JR, McConnell M, et al. Public health science agenda for congenital heart defects: report from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention experts meeting. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(5):e000256. doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000256
  23. Nikyar B, Sedehi M, Mirfazeli A, Qorbani M, Golalipour M-J. Prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease among neonates in Gorgan, Northern Iran (2007-2008). Iran J Pediatr. 2011;21(3):307.
  24. Smitha R, Karat S, Narayanappa D, Krishnamurthy B, Prasanth S, Ramachandra N. Prevalence of congenital heart diseases in Mysore. Indian J Hum Genet. 2006;12(1):11-6. doi:10.4103/0971-6866.25296
  25. Alabdulgader A. Congenital heart disease in Saudi Arabia: current epidemiology and future projections. East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12 (Supp 2), S157-S167.
  26. Stephensen SS, Sigfusson G, Eiriksson H, Sverrisson JT, Torfason B, Haraldsson A, et al. Congenital cardiac malformations in Iceland from 1990 through 1999. Cardiol Young. 2004;14(4):396-401. doi:10.1017/S1047951104004081
  27. Oster ME, Riehle-Colarusso T, Alverson CJ, Correa A. Associations between maternal fever and influenza and congenital heart defects. J Pediatr. 2011;158(6):990-5. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.11.058
  28. Chou H-H, Chiou M-J, Liang F-W, Chen L-H, Lu T-H, Li C-Y. Association of maternal chronic disease with risk of congenital heart disease in offspring. Can Med Assoc J. 2016;188(17-18): E438-E46. doi:10.1503/cmaj.160061