Effect of neurofeedback on anxiety, dyslexia, and dysgraphia in elementary students affected by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Master of Clinical Psychology, Azad University, Yazd, Iran

2 Research Center of Addiction and Behavioral Sciences, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

3 Department of clinical psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Cardiovascular, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

5 Ph.D. Student in Educational Psychology, International Imam Reza University, Mashhad, Iran

6 Emam Reza Hospital, Sirjan School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, Iran

7 Students’ Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: Neurofeedback as a behavioral technique has an important role in attending to internal changes alongside strengthening and increasing the focus and attention of children in certain fields.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of neurofeedback on anxiety, dyslexia, and dysgraphia in elementary students affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Methods: Five elementary school students from Yazd, Iran, with ADHD were included in this pilot study. Based on their EEG patterns, brainwave training was carried out using the neurofeedback method. The participants received 30 sessions of neurofeedback treatment, three times per week, for 10 weeks. Before and after neurofeedback training, the participants' performance was evaluated using EEG, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) for ADHD, and the Conners' test for dyslexia and dysgraphia.
Results: Neurofeedback improves dyslexia and dysgraphia, indicating significant improvement in the participants' learning performance after neurofeedback (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in anxiety levels (p = 0.178) before and after neurofeedback.
Conclusion: Neurofeedback enhances dyslexia and dysgraphia but does not have a significant impact on anxiety in elementary school students.


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