Effect of Neurofeedback on Anxiety, Dyslexia, and Dysgraphia in Elementary Students Afflicted with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- a Pilot Study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Master of Clinical Psychology, Azad University, Yazd, Iran

2 Research Center of Addiction and Behavioral Sciences, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

3 Department of clinical psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Cardiovascular, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

5 Ph.D. student in educational psychology, International Imam Reza University, Mashhad, Iran

6 Emam Reza Hospital, Sirjan School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, Iran

7 Students’ Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background:  Neurofeedback as a behavioral technique has an important role in the attention on internal changes along with strengthening and increasing focus and attention of children in some fields.
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of neurofeedback on anxiety, dyslexia, and dysgraphia in elementary students afflicted with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Methods: In this pilot study, five elementary students with ADHD from Yazd, Iran were included. According to the electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern, brainwave training was accomplished with the neurofeedback method. Children received 30 sessions of neurofeedback treatment, 3 times per week (for 10 weeks). Before and after neurofeedback training, the children were evaluated and compared with tools of EEG, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) for ADHD, and the Conner’s test for dyslexia and dysgraphia.  
Results: Neurotherapy is effective on dyslexia and dysgraphia; in other words, the students' learning performance significantly improved after Neurotherapy (P=0.000 and P=0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference regarding anxiety (P=0.178) before and after neurofeedback.  
Conclusion: Neurofeedback improves dyslexia and dysgraphia but does not affect anxiety in elementary students.